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Orlikova Lane

A construction of the building number 4 began only two years later, after the completion of the third one. A long-running pause in the tandem Tolvinskiy-Chodetskiy was quite reasonable: the building was enriched by high semicircular windows; entrance halls became lighter and more comfortable.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street   81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: dwelling house, a building of residential complex
Style: eclecticism, Renaissance
Architects: N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy
Date of building: 1893-1894
Status: local architectural monument
Other addresses: 3, Orlikova Lane

Facade from the courtyard side

General view General view


In 1893, the construction of the building no. 4 was started. A year later, the unfinished building was still out on most maps and plans of the city, such as on a map of Michael Diterikhs only buildings no. 1, 2 and 3 were marked. The building no. 4 logically continued the development of the building line of Orlikov Lane, facing Yamchitskogo Lane by the front side. When designing houses, Tolvinsky showed a very atypical solution: to make facade from the courtyard side more plastic and showy in composition, than the front one. In general, the architecture of the building synthesizes the features of the buildings no. 2 and 3, but here the architect has introduced a new element — a high semicircular windows for lighting of the entrance halls. Subsequently, they will be applied in the building number 5. The composition of the courtyard facade is interesting, first of all, by its tectonics. The facade, with an extent of 17 window axes, is strictly symmetrical, and seven central axes, moreover, are highlighted by a massive risalit. In turn, the central axis of the risalit (where a doorway to the entrance hall, its staircase and light windows are located) is marked out by the narrow risalit with a triangular pediment.

Risalit of the central entrance

General view Upper light window Lower light window

Another two entrance halls are arranged in the side wings, and light windows — at the ends. The facade from Orlikov Lane has (in the central part) a risalit, three window axes wide.

Facade from Orlikova Lane side (front)

General view, to the right in the lane — the building number 5 Central risalit

Hoodmold corbels

Side facades cite previous buildings in composition, but here they are (due to the semi-circular windows of the entrance halls) more plastic.

Side facade

General view Stairs risalit, a view upward Windows of the utility rooms under the stairs, on the risalit axis Lower light window

The interior is well preserved, including the scroll of a handrail on the entrance flight of stairs in the central entrance hall. A detail of the central part of the handrail scroll is devoid of artistic features and represents several inscribed into each other circles. In the building number 5, it is more austere.

Entrance hall (central)

Landing of the ground floor Landing of the ground floor, vaults
Railings, general view Railings, a fragment Railings, a scroll detail Railings, a scroll detail Railings, a detail of the baluster Railings, the entrance flight of stairs, a handrail scroll Railings, a fastening of the baluster
Upper light window Lower light window Authentic window handle

Doorway to the entrance hall (left-side)

General view Canopy over the doorway



References and Archives

  • «Architects of Odessa». B. Pilyavsky
  • «Architecture of Odessa. Style and time „. B. Pilyavsky
  • „Buildings, structures, monuments of Odessa and architects“. B. Pilyavsky


After completion of the building number 2 construction in the end of 1890s, next year the laying of the building no. 3 — practically twice as big, with L-shaped layout plan, was carried out on the corner of Kanatnaya Street and Orlikova Lane.

About the complex   81/1,Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street    Kanatnaya Street, 81/3   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street   81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of the building: dwelling house, a building of residential complex
Style: eclecticism, Renaissance
Architects: N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy
Date of construction: 1891
Status: local architectural monument
Other addresses: 1, Orlikova Lane

Main facade

General view View of the corner part of the house Facade along Orlikova Lane Facade along Orlikova Lane


Yard facade

General view General view

While projecting the new building, Tolvinskiy took the way of mixing the styles of two previous buildings. The building got dripstones above the second floor windows (their corbels are almost identical to the corbels of the dripstonesof the first building) and increased quantity of modeled decor.

Thereby, the construction from the side of Kanatnaya Street obtained the traces of inseparable architectural ensemble, while the facades of the first and the second buildings (along Italian Boulevard) are harmonized with each other in a much smaller degree. Both exterior facades of the building number 3 are very simple compositionally : extreme axes are marked out by superficial avant-corpses, the corner of the building is truncated.

One of the avant-corpses, a view from below

The first floor is worked up with the rustic stone analogous with the rustic stone from the building no.1. The second floor, as it had been mentioned before, is emphasized by dripstones crowning the window openings on corbels.

Solution of the second floor windows

Windows from the side of Orlikova Lane Window of the yard facade

Here semicircular and three-angled dripstones are used, alternating one after the other. The second floor is performed as another quotation of Gonsiorovskiy building.

Window of the third floor from the side of Orlikova Lane

In the piers of the first and second floors the panels in the shape of thin empty frames without decor are placed, giving the facades of the building extra plasticity. End facades are compositionally consonant with the end facades of the building no.1. In the avant-corps, emphasizing the center of the facade plane, with triangular pediments, the windows of the entrance halls lighting are placed.

Avant-corps of the end facade with the windows of the entrance hall lighting

Utility building, adjacent to the end facade

General view General view

Doorways to the entrance hall are arranged on the same axe with lighting windows. The third entrance hall is equipped in the corner, at the junction of wings from the side of the yard. Architectural finish of yard facades is similar to facial ones. Details of interior decoration repeat the previous building, except the elements in the center of the railing scroll.

One of the entrance halls

Railing The element of the railing scroll

Therewith, in the building no. 3 the tiles are used, with which the landings in all the entrances halls are tiled with. In other buildings of the complex tile is absent.

Tiles of the landings



References and archives

  • “Architects of Odessa”. V. Pilyavskiy
    *”Architecture of Odessa. Style and time”. V. Pilyavskiy
  • “Houses, buildings, monuments of Odessa and their Architects”. V. Pilyavskiy


At the turn of the 1880s and 1890s, Odessa was adorned with the largest at the time residential complex. According to the posthumous will of Odessa benefactor P. Z. Yamchitskiy, near the Kulikovo Field, the architectural ensemble, the scope and monumentality of which strike and today, was raised.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street  81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: residential complex

Eclecticism, Renaissance (buildings no. 1-5)
Geometric Art Nouveau (building no. 6)

F. V. Gasiorowskiy (building no. 1)
N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy (buildings no. 2-5)
L. M. Chernigov (?) (building no. 6)**

Date of building:
1885-1887 (1st stage, building no. 1)
1890-1895 (2nd stage and completion of the construction, buildings no. 2-5)
1910-е (building no. 6)

Local architectural monument (buildings no. 1-5)
Object of background building (building no. 6)

Other addresses:
9 and 11, Italianskiy Boulevard
2 and 4, Yamchitskogo Lane
1 and 3, Orlikova Lane

Photograph from the beginning of XX century guide

Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy (about 1800-1882), a secretary assistant of the Odessa Commercial Court, received before 1841 a rank of the titular counselor, among other things, was engaged in charity. During his lifetime, however, he was unknown, although he made a considerable fortune and owned a house on 8, Richelievskaya Street. 1841 year became a turning point for him. September 28 his year-old daughter Varvara died, and on 3 November the same year, at the age of 22 years, his wife Maria Efimovna went away in other world because of a fever. After outliving them for forty years, Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy died in Odessa, December 1, 1882 at the age of 82 years. On 2 December, after a funeral service at the Cathedral, he was buried in the Old Cemetery.

January 11, 1883, the Odessa District Court claimed to the execution of three spiritual testaments of Yamchitskiy. Among other things, he bequeathed that to the example of St. Petersburg Society of cheap apartments, a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy) was built in Odessa for habitation in it citizens of the city that matched the specified by him conditions. Besides Pavlovskiy building as Yamchitskiy wanted had to belong to the city — «an inalienable forever property of Odessa». According to the will, for the management of the construction of the building and then operation of the house, Mikhail Bogdanovich Nilus (as director) and Iona Galagan (as an assistant) were assigned. To help them the City Council was to elect two public deputies to the end of the construction. There were two more executors in the testament of Yamchitskiy — Stanislaw Dunin and Victor Sahnovsiky. By the end of 1890, Iona Galagan left his duties, but Dunin, on the contrary —fulfilled. They concerned debentures of Pavel Yamchitskiy (Nilus and Sakhnovskiy had already been dead). According to the testament, in the case of power removal from agreed executors, one of the sons of Maria Klimenko or Anna Veselovskaya, probably relatives of Pavel Zakharovich, had to be appointed instead. And so it happened: on 12 September, 1897, according to the decision of the City Council, Boris Klimenko became a director of Pavlovskiy building and his assistant — Sergey Veselovskiy. Yamchitsky bequeathed to sell his own house on 8, Richelievskaya Street and use the proceeds for expanding the complex of Pavlovskiy buildings. However, this house suffered from the fire, and Klimenko and Veselovskiy delayed the sale of the ashes for a long time, thereby preventing the city in actions under the will. The story ended with a lawsuit and lengthy assize.

Pavlovskiy houses on the map of Mikhail Diterikhs (1894)—left, and on the map of Odessa


By 1895, the construction of five of the six currently existing buildings had been completed. The largest at the time residential complex in Odessa was repeatedly mentioned in guidebooks and references of city sights. A. S. Borinevich dedicated a part of the article about the charity in Odessa, wrote to the centenary of the city and went down in the jubilee digest, released in 1894 by the Committee of City Government, to Pavlovskiy building of low-cost apartments:

«... so-called „Pavloviн building with low-cost apartments“ P. Z. Yamchitskiy left in his will, approved in 1883, a capital of 511,000 rubles (Author: In terms of today's money, this capital can be estimated at more than $ 10 million. Capital was spent partly on the construction of the complex, and in part put at interest used to maintain the buildings in proper form) [...] in order to construct a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy), „for housing in it, with the payment of money at a rate of no more than 3 percent of total income, and in exceptional circumstances and free of charge, for those Odessa citizens, mostly Christians, who are not discredited by the behavior, have settled life here, their furniture and some craft or other means for subsistence. “ The city allotted a free space of the former Dragutinskie plantations, in the amount of 3,450 sazhens: in 1885, a laying of the main building, which was completed in 1887, was made: in 1889 the second building was constructed, in 1891 — the third and in 1893 — the fourth. All three-storey houses consisted of 23 flats of three rooms each, 103 — 2 rooms and 37 — one room: in addition there were 6 shops and the apartment for administration „.

Record in the address directory (1908)

Shortly before the completion of construction, in November 1893, Public school for children living in the building was opened. Their learning, textbooks and manuals were free. At Pavlovskiy house there was a permanent physician whose services the residents of the complex could use for free. Medicines and necessary at first medical benefits patients also received free of charge from the home pharmacy at the building office. The location of schools, shops and the home clinic, unfortunately, is unknown. According to the data of the same 1893, six hundred forty-one people of both sexes lodged in the building, 32 of them did not pay for accommodation.

Photo of the early XX century, right away — the building no. 1

The first of the six buildings the building no. 1 was erected. The building is located at the corner of Kanatnaya Street and Italian Boulevard and occupies a quite complicated in plan asymmetric site. The architect F. V. Gonsiorowskiy, in fact, not only erected the building itself, but also developed a general layout for the quarter development (within the limits of Kanatnaya Street, Italian Boulevard, Orlikova and Yamchitskogo Lanes). N. K. Tolvinskiy, who continued the construction of the complex, partly followed this plan, having built four buildings on the perimeter of the quarter, saving number of storeys of the ensemble and the overall style with the building of Gonsiorowskiy. At the end of the second stage of construction under the guidance of Tolvinskiy in the middle of the block there appeared a large courtyard, which was originally planned for a small garden and placing of smaller, service buildings.

However, this area was empty for a long time, and only after more than a decade and a half, in the center of the courtyard, a large, differing from the surrounding buildings, the building 6 — four-storey parallelepiped of geometric Art Nouveau style appeared. Unfortunately, data on the exact date of its construction, as well as the author of the project are not available; however, analyzing the architectural design of the building, it can be found parallels with the work of architects L. M. Chernigov and A. Minkus.

All buildings constructed by Tolvinskiy are interconnected along the building line by one-story annexes that gives the courtyard of the complex some intimacy. Their front facades are rusticated similar to the first storeys and it has the effect of continuity and solidity of the construction.

In the courtyard a small, square in plan, construction with cut corners, raised in the tradition of „brick style“ and overlapped by a low octagonal tent roof remained. Among the versions of its original purpose, the most likely is a version of the electric substation or dovecote. However, it is — just a guess.

Construction of unknown purpose

General view Window opening

On the other side of the courtyard another interesting item survived, part and parcel of Odessa of the end of XIX century — the filling well.


View from the building no.3, on the left —the building no.6, in the distance —the building no.5 General view

Pavlovskiy houses of low-cost apartments had successfully performed their functions until the revolution. These functions have not changed in the Soviet era; however, like most of the pre-revolutionary Odessa apartment buildings, the buildings of the complex were rearranged and subjected to the „compaction“. The subsequent history of houses was not violent. In 1923, at the address 2,Yamchitskogo Lane (i.e. exactly on the side of the complex with cheap apartments) 1st Maternity Hospital was located .

General view of Pavlovskiy complex with low-cost apartments (about 1917). On the left —the building no.1, on the right —the building no. 3, between them, in deep —the building no.6

In the 30 years of the Pavlovskiy houses passed the next wave of renovations, the original plan was finally broken, but its general outlines were preserved. During the Soviet period, the buildings were not repaired for years and fell into desolation, and today their dilapidated condition can hardly be called even satisfactory. However, the complex of Pavlovskiy houses with low-cost apartments is valuable not only from the architectural, urban planning and historical point of view; it is a peculiar monument of the generous charity, so typical for the inhabitants of Odessa XIX century.

Building no. 1

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 2

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 3

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 4

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 5

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 6

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street



References and Archives